一问一答

中国新闻周刊:与谷歌、苹果、微软等这些具有国际影响力的公司相比,国内(手机行业)的技术创新,尤其在核心技术的掌握及潮流引领方面尚显欠缺,造成此种距离的原因有哪些?
阚凯力造成我国技术创新落后的主要原因还在是在于体制的限制。例如,为了保护国有电信运营商的利益,我国至今还禁止网络电话的使用,这在全世界都已经绝无仅有了。同时,手机的核心任务是随时随地传递大量信息,但很多信息被认为“敏感”而限制其传播。因此,既然我国在“普世价值”方面严重地落后于世界,在技术潮流方面也就不可能领先。

转载:强悍的翻译

从这里看到的

英文原文:

My enemies are many, my equals are none. In the shade of olive trees, they said Italy could never be conquered. In the land of pharoahs and kings, they said Egypt could never be humbled. In the realm of forest and snow, they said Russia could never be tamed. Now they say nothing. They fear me, like a force of nature, a dealer in thunder and death. I say I am Napoleon, I am emperor… Burn it!

霸气十足,好一个拿破仑!

普通翻译版

我树敌无数,却从未逢对手。在橄榄树荫下,他们说意大利永远不会被征服。在法老和国王的土地上,他们说埃及永远不会臣服。在森林与暴雪的国度,他们说俄国永远不会被征服。现在他们已无话可说。他们畏惧我,如同畏惧带来雷霆和死亡的自然力量。我就是拿破仑,我就是皇帝……. 烧掉它!

中规中矩,忠实原文。
文言文版

朕之仇寇多矣,然敌手则未之有也。大秦、大食、罗刹,皆自诩不可胜之,而今寂然。彼畏朕,犹若畏天。朕,天之子也…… 焚!

整段译文,朗朗上口。非常精简,然意境不失。“寂然”二字,深得古典史籍之精粹。
武侠版

仇人。
曾经我有很多仇人。
摘叶手,不死法王,绿眼人熊,这些人平生未尝败绩。但现在,他们都死了。
而我活着,活得很好,很快活。
我即江湖,江湖即我。
烧吧。

古龙看了一定会很欣慰。
长沙话版

老子出手就冇得输。意爹叫脑壳,埃及板硬。俄国也咻人,恒之都是屁弹琴。于至今皆送我赫倒,只扮得矮的。我是仑爹我怕哪个 —— 烧!

虽有恶搞成分,但能翻出这等意境,林语堂也得感慨了。

Google的10条价值观

1. Focus on the user and all else will follow.
2. It’s best to do one thing really, really well.
3. Fast is better than slow.
4. Democracy on the web works.
5. You don’t need to be at your desk to need an answer.
6. You can make money without doing evil.
7. There’s always more information out there.
8. The need for information crosses all borders.
9. You can be serious without a suit.
10. Great just isn’t good enough.

下面分别附上英文原版和中文翻译:

英文原版:

Ten things we know to be true

“The perfect search engine,” says co-founder Larry Page, “would understand exactly what you mean and give back exactly what you want.” When Google began, you would have been pleasantly surprised to enter a search query and immediately find the right answer. Google became successful precisely because we were better and faster at finding the right answer than other search engines at the time.

But technology has come a long way since then, and the face of the web has changed. Recognizing that search is a problem that will never be solved, we continue to push the limits of existing technology to provide a fast, accurate and easy-to-use service that anyone seeking information can access, whether they’re at a desk in Boston or on a phone in Bangkok. We’ve also taken the lessons we’ve learned from search to tackle even more challenges.

As we keep looking towards the future, these core principles guide our actions.

1. Focus on the user and all else will follow.

Since the beginning, we’ve focused on providing the best user experience possible. Whether we’re designing a new Internet browser or a new tweak to the look of the homepage, we take great care to ensure that they will ultimately serve you, rather than our own internal goal or bottom line. Our homepage interface is clear and simple, and pages load instantly. Placement in search results is never sold to anyone, and advertising is not only clearly marked as such, it offers relevant content and is not distracting. And when we build new tools and applications, we believe they should work so well you don’t have to consider how they might have been designed differently.

2. It’s best to do one thing really, really well.

We do search. With one of the world’s largest research groups focused exclusively on solving search problems, we know what we do well, and how we could do it better. Through continued iteration on difficult problems, we’ve been able to solve complex issues and provide continuous improvements to a service that already makes finding information a fast and seamless experience for millions of people. Our dedication to improving search helps us apply what we’ve learned to new products, like Gmail and Google Maps. Our hope is to bring the power of search to previously unexplored areas, and to help people access and use even more of the ever-expanding information in their lives.

3. Fast is better than slow.

We know your time is valuable, so when you’re seeking an answer on the web you want it right away – and we aim to please. We may be the only people in the world who can say our goal is to have people leave our homepage as quickly as possible. By shaving excess bits and bytes from our pages and increasing the efficiency of our serving environment, we’ve broken our own speed records many times over, so that the average response time on a search result is a fraction of a second. We keep speed in mind with each new product we release, whether it’s a mobile application or Google Chrome, a browser designed to be fast enough for the modern web. And we continue to work on making it all go even faster.

4. Democracy on the web works.

Google search works because it relies on the millions of individuals posting links on websites to help determine which other sites offer content of value. We assess the importance of every web page using more than 200 signals and a variety of techniques, including our patented PageRank? algorithm, which analyzes which sites have been “voted” to be the best sources of information by other pages across the web. As the web gets bigger, this approach actually improves, as each new site is another point of information and another vote to be counted. In the same vein, we are active in open source software development, where innovation takes place through the collective effort of many programmers.

5. You don’t need to be at your desk to need an answer.

The world is increasingly mobile: people want access to information wherever they are, whenever they need it. We’re pioneering new technologies and offering new solutions for mobile services that help people all over the globe to do any number of tasks on their phone, from checking email and calendar events to watching videos, not to mention the several different ways to access Google search on a phone. In addition, we’re hoping to fuel greater innovation for mobile users everywhere with Android, a free, open source mobile platform. Android brings the openness that shaped the Internet to the mobile world. Not only does Android benefit consumers, who have more choice and innovative new mobile experiences, but it opens up revenue opportunities for carriers, manufacturers and developers.

6. You can make money without doing evil.

Google is a business. The revenue we generate is derived from offering search technology to companies and from the sale of advertising displayed on our site and on other sites across the web. Hundreds of thousands of advertisers worldwide use AdWords to promote their products; hundreds of thousands of publishers take advantage of our AdSense program to deliver ads relevant to their site content. To ensure that we’re ultimately serving all our users (whether they are advertisers or not), we have a set of guiding principles for our advertising programs and practices:

* We don’t allow ads to be displayed on our results pages unless they are relevant where they are shown. And we firmly believe that ads can provide useful information if, and only if, they are relevant to what you wish to find – so it’s possible that certain searches won’t lead to any ads at all.
* We believe that advertising can be effective without being flashy. We don’t accept pop-up advertising, which interferes with your ability to see the content you’ve requested. We’ve found that text ads that are relevant to the person reading them draw much higher clickthrough rates than ads appearing randomly. Any advertiser, whether small or large, can take advantage of this highly targeted medium.
* Advertising on Google is always clearly identified as a “Sponsored Link,” so it does not compromise the integrity of our search results. We never manipulate rankings to put our partners higher in our search results and no one can buy better PageRank. Our users trust our objectivity and no short-term gain could ever justify breaching that trust.

7. There’s always more information out there.

Once we’d indexed more of the HTML pages on the Internet than any other search service, our engineers turned their attention to information that was not as readily accessible. Sometimes it was just a matter of integrating new databases into search, such as adding a phone number and address lookup and a business directory. Other efforts required a bit more creativity, like adding the ability to search news archives, patents, academic journals, billions of images and millions of books. And our researchers continue looking into ways to bring all the world’s information to people seeking answers.

8. The need for information crosses all borders.

Our company was founded in California, but our mission is to facilitate access to information for the entire world, and in every language. To that end, we have offices in dozens of countries, maintain more than 150 Internet domains, and serve more than half of our results to people living outside the United States. We offer Google’s search interface in more than 110 languages, offer people the ability to restrict results to content written in their own language, and aim to provide the rest of our applications and products in as many languages as possible. Using our translation tools, people can discover content written on the other side of the world in languages they don’t speak. With these tools and the help of volunteer translators, we have been able to greatly improve both the variety and quality of services we can offer in even the most far-flung corners of the globe.

9. You can be serious without a suit.

Our founders built Google around the idea that work should be challenging, and the challenge should be fun. We believe that great, creative things are more likely to happen with the right company culture – and that doesn’t just mean lava lamps and rubber balls. There is an emphasis on team achievements and pride in individual accomplishments that contribute to our overall success. We put great stock in our employees – energetic, passionate people from diverse backgrounds with creative approaches to work, play and life. Our atmosphere may be casual, but as new ideas emerge in a café line, at a team meeting or at the gym, they are traded, tested and put into practice with dizzying speed – and they may be the launch pad for a new project destined for worldwide use.

10. Great just isn’t good enough.

We see being great at something as a starting point, not an endpoint. We set ourselves goals we know we can’t reach yet, because we know that by stretching to meet them we can get further than we expected. Through innovation and iteration, we aim to take things that work well and improve upon them in unexpected ways. For example, when one of our engineers saw that search worked well for properly spelled words, he wondered about how it handled typos. That led him to create an intuitive and more helpful spell checker.

Even if you don’t know exactly what you’re looking for, finding an answer on the web is our problem, not yours. We try to anticipate needs not yet articulated by our global audience, and meet them with products and services that set new standards. When we launched Gmail, it had more storage space than any email service available. In retrospect offering that seems obvious – but that’s because now we have new standards for email storage. Those are the kinds of changes we seek to make, and we’re always looking for new places where we can make a difference. Ultimately, our constant dissatisfaction with the way things are becomes the driving force behind everything we do.

中文翻译:

谷歌的价值观
永不满足,力求最佳
Google 联合创始人拉里·佩奇说,“完美的搜索引擎需要做到确解用户之意,切返用户之需”。 就搜索技术的现状而言,我们需要通过研究、开发和革新来实现长远的发展。 Google 致力于成为这一技术领域的开拓者。 尽管 Google 已是全球公认的业界领先的搜索技术公司,但 Google 的目标是为所有信息搜寻者提供更高标准的服务,无论用户是坐在波士顿的台式机旁,还是正在驾车穿过波恩,或是漫步在曼谷街头。

正是由于这一点,Google 一直在不断追求创新并突破现有的技术限制,为客户提供快速、准确和易用的搜索服务,而不受地点的限制。 要全面了解 Google 的最好方式,就是了解公司用来重新定义个人、企业和技术专家看待互联网的所有方式。

Google 的十大价值观
1. 以用户为中心,其他一切水到渠成。

创建伊始,Google 即以提供最佳的用户体验为中心任务。 虽然很多公司主张客户利益优先,但只有少数能抗拒各种诱惑,大多都会牺牲客户的少量利益来增加股东价值。 Google 的一贯态度是:如果所做的更改不会给网站访问者带来任何好处,则将坚定不移地予以拒绝:

界面清晰易用。
网页加载迅速。
搜索结果的排名绝对不出售给任何人。
网站上的广告必须提供相关内容,不能影响用户的体验。
Google 秉持着用户第一的理念,在网上赢得了最忠实的用户群体。 用户群体的增长并不是通过电视广告活动获得的,而是在用户的交口称颂下实现的。

2. 心无旁骛、精益求精。

Google 要做的就是搜索。 拥有世界上最大的研究队伍之一,心无旁骛地攻克搜索问题,我们知道自己擅长什么,也知道如何可以做得更好。 通过持之以恒地对难题进行反复的探索,我们始终能够解决复杂难题,并不断地改进已被公认为网络上为百万用户提供快捷、完美的信息搜索体验的最佳服务。 我们努力改善搜索服务,这也让我们可以将所学的知识应用于新产品,其中包括 Gmail、Google 桌面和 Google 地图。 在改善搜索服务的同时,我们也在不断推出新产品*,我们的愿望是将搜索的强大功能应用于以前未曾探索的领域,并帮助用户更多地访问及利用其生活中不断扩充 的信息。

3. 快比慢好。

Google 相信瞬间带来的喜悦。 您需要解答的时候,往往是希望马上就能得到。 这点是无庸置疑的吧? Google 的目标就是希望用户使用 Google 网站的时间越短越好,这样的公司世界上可能也独一无二。 Google 执著地消减网页多余的空间,不断地提高服务环境的效率,并一次次地打破自己创造的速度记录。 别人认为大型服务器是处理海量数据的最快方式, 但 Google 却发现 PC 机联网速度会更快。 在别人都认为搜索算法会明显限制速度时,Google 却写出了新的算法,证明了速度无限的真理。 Google 一直在不断地努力,让速度再快一点。

4. 网络的民主作风。

Google 之所以成功,原因在于它仰赖数百万向网站发布信息的用户来确定哪些网站提供的内容具有价值。 Google 不依赖一组编辑人员或仅仅根据某个词汇出现的频率来为每个网页评级,而是采用一项突破性技术,即 PageRank™。 PageRank 对一个网页所链接的所有网站进行评估,并为它们分配一个值(在一定程度上参照了与相应网站链接的网站)。 通过分析网络的整体结构,Google 能够确定哪些网站被最对其信息感兴趣的用户“票选”为最佳信息来源。 该技术也会随着网络规模不断增长而改善,因为每一个新网站将成为另一个信息点,同时也是另一张要记入的选票。

5. 获取信息的方式多种多样,不必非要坐在台式机前。

世界的流动性越来越快,人们很难再局限于一个固定的角落。 无论是通过 PDA,还是无线电话,甚至是在汽车里,人们都希望随时获得所需的信息。 Google 在这一领域开发了多种创新技术,其中包括 Google Number Search。通过这一技术,人们从具有上网功能的手机以及即时转换系统(将以 HTML 格式编写的网页转换为手机浏览器可以读取的格式)上查找数据时,可以大大减少键击次数。 借助于这一系统,人们能够从 Palm PDA、Japanese i-mode、J-Sky 和 EZWeb 等原先不能显示网页内容的设备上打开数十亿个网页,查看网页内容。 尽管搜索引擎在任何地方都可以帮助用户找到所需的信息,但 Google 仍然在不断地探索新技术并提供新的解决方案。

6. 不做坏事也能赚钱。

Google 是一个企业。 它通过以下两种方式来获取收入:向其他公司提供 搜索技术;向广告客户提供在 Google 和网络其他网站上投放 广告的 服务。 然而,您可能从未在 Google 上看到过广告。 这是因为,除非广告与所显示的搜索结果页内容相关,否则 Google 不允许广告显示在我们的搜索结果页上。 因此,只有某些搜索才会在搜索结果的上方或右侧显示赞助商链接。 Google 坚信,只有当广告与您要查找的内容相关时,才会为您提供有用的信息。

Google 同样也证明了广告不必过分渲染也能够切实有效。 Google 不接受弹出式广告,因为这会干扰用户查看所请求的内容。 我们发现,文字广告 (AdWords) 的内容如果与用户阅读的内容相关,那么所带来的点击率要比随机显示的广告高得多。 Google 的优化小组会与广告客户合作提高广告系列在有效期内的点击率。因为点击率越高,表明广告与用户感兴趣内容的相关性越高。 广告客户可以通过我们的自助式广告服务计划,在数分钟内在线投放广告,也可以在 Google 广告服务代表的帮助下发布广告。但无论是哪种广告投放方式,任何规模的广告客户都可以充分发挥这一针对性强的媒介的优势。

在 Google 上刊登的广告总是明确地标记为“赞助商链接”。 不破坏搜索结果的完整性是 Google 的核心价值观。 我们绝对不会操纵排名位置来将我们的合作伙伴放在搜索结果中排名考前的位置。 没人可以购买更高的 PageRank(网页评级)。 我们的用户信任 Google 的客观公正性,任何短期利益都不能够成为破坏这种信任的理由。

成千上万的广告客户使用我们的 Google AdWords 计划来推广他们的产品,我们相信 AdWords 是同类计划中规模最大的一个。 此外,数千名网站管理人员使用我们的 Google AdSense 计划投放与网站内容相关的广告,借此增加收入和改善用户的体验。

7. 信息永无止境。

当 Google 索引中包含的互联网上的 HTML 网页超过任何其他搜索服务之后,我们的工程师开始将精力转到那些不太容易获得的信息上。 有时只是合并新数据库的问题,如添加电话号码、地址查询以及企业目录。 有时却需要更多的创造性工作,如增添可搜索超过 10 亿张图片的功能,或增添查看原始格式为 PDF 文件的网页方式。 由于 PDF 格式的大量使用,我们需要扩展所搜索的文件类型的列表,以支持使用 Microsoft Word、Excel 和 PowerPoint 等多种格式创建的文档。 为了满足无线用户的需要,Google 开发了一种独一无二的技术,可将 HTML 格式的文件转换为移动设备可读取的格式。 该列表维护工作不会就此终止,因为 Google 的研究人员将持续不断地探索新的方式,将全球范围内的所有信息提供给寻找答案的用户。

8. 信息需求,没有国界。

尽管 Google 的总部位于加利福尼亚州,但我们的办事处遍布全球,我们的宗旨是帮助全世界的用户获得所需的信息。 为了实现这一目标,我们维护着十多个互联网域;在我们所提供的搜索结果中,超过一半是提供给美国境外的用户。 用户可以根据自己的喜好,从 Google 支持的 35 种语言中任选一种来展示搜索结果。 此外,我们还提供翻译功能,无论用户的母语是哪种语言,都可以搜索到所需的内容;不喜欢使用英语搜索的用户可以有100 多种语言用来自定义 Google 界面。 为了更快地补充新语种,Google 为志愿者提供机会帮助做一些翻译工作,Google.com 网站上提供了供翻译使用的 自动工具。 这一流程大大改善了我们为用户(甚至位于地球上最偏远角落的用户)提供的服务多样性和质量。

9. 没有西装革履也可以很正经。

Google 的创始人一再强调公司所重视的惟有搜索。 他们秉承着“工作赋予挑战,挑战带来快乐”的理念创建了 Google。 正是由于这一点,Google 的企业文化不同于其他的美国公司,但这并不是因为公司里无所不在的熔岩灯和大健身球,也不在于公司的主厨曾为著名乐队 Grateful Dead 掌勺。 就像 Google 的线上服务始终将用户放在首位一样,Googleplex 总部的日常生活也是将自己的员工放在首位。 我们重视团队成绩,并以对促成公司全面成功的个人成就为荣。 于是,新的创意和想法不断以令人目眩的速度在彼此之间交流并投入实际应用。 其他公司的会议可能会占用几个小时,而在这里通常只要在排队购买午餐时,聊上几句就能解决;编程代码的人员和编写检查程序的人员之间也几乎不存在屏障。 这种畅所欲言的环境提高了员工的工作效率,并促进了员工之间的友情,而这种氛围又因为数百万的人们对 Google 搜索结果的信赖而变得更加浓厚。 您只要为想要有所作为的员工提供适当的工具,他们定然不负您的期望。

10. 没有最好,只有更好。

所提供的服务始终超出人们的预期。 Google 不会把最好看作是终点,而是全新的起点。 通过创新和反复探索,Google 选择行之有效的技术,并以异乎寻常的方式不断进行改进。 搜索对于拼写正确的文字没有问题,对于拼写错误的文字会怎样呢? 我们的工程师透视用户的需求并相应地开发错别字改正程序,就像知道用户在想什么一样。 在 WAP 手机上进行搜索时的时间太长? 我们的无线技术部门开发了 Google Number Search,将每个字母击键三次减少为只击一次。 尽管我们的客户群体数以百万计,Google 仍然能够迅速找到发生冲突的位置,随即加以解决。 但是,Google 与众不同的一点,就是在全球用户还未明确意识到自己的需求之前便能抢先做出周密考虑,并开发出富于创新的工具和产品来满足他们的需要。 这种永不满足现状的态度就是我们能成为世界上最佳搜索引擎背后的终极驱动力量。

——————————————————————————–

* 全文更新: 在四年前我们首次写下“十大价值观”时,我们曾经说过,“Google 不做星座预测,不做财经咨询,也不做聊天”。 随着时间的推移,我们拓展了可以提供的服务范围(例如,网络搜索并不是人们访问或使用信息的唯一方式),还有那些当时看来似乎不可能的产品现在却已成为我 们整个计划中至关重要的环节。 这并不是说我们改变了核心任务;只是我们越是朝这个目标前进,地平线上那些看似模糊的目标也变得越为清晰(当然,也会出现更模糊的目标。)

当年的学车日记

当年的学车日记,当年写在Blogspot上。现在不翻墙访问不了了,所以重贴出来。看一看,真逗。学车比开车好玩啊。

学车日记(1)

今天第一天,天气晴朗,红旗飘飘,小风嗖嗖,心情那个激动啊。

学打交叉轮的时候,我就记着上课的时候,老师说,2个手都要在方向盘上,不换档不能离开,然后我接轮的那个手就一直跟着走到不能再走才去接轮。然后教练就一直说,那只手,别跟着走了,接轮去。。。。。。后来轮到另一个女孩练的时候,教练先交代他,那只手别跟着走啊,接轮去。

油门到底的感觉是:耳朵里能听到教练“啊”的一声。车停住,然后车被白色的烟包围。
刹车到底的感觉是(不踩离合):“刷”的一下,双脚都踩实了。人会跟随车会噔噔噔的蹦几下。车熄火。

树的故事:教练说踩油门。。加速。。换2档。我换2档,然后他说再加速,换3档,我就加速呗,然后他说再加点速,我就再加点呗,然后他说换3档,我就摸不到档把了。。。。然后一直踩着油门,教练说刹车。。。然后我就找不到刹车了。。。然后就看到前边是树。。。。。。然后车就停了。离树貌似O.00001公分

换挡的故事:教练说减速,4档换2档。我就先刹车哈,然后摸索着找档把。然后。。。。。。教练说,4档换2档,不是4档换5档。。。。。。

沟的故事:教练说前边左转,先刹车减速。我就减速,他说换2档,我就换挡(这次找到了档把),然后他说打一圈轮。我就蒙了 ,我说左打还是右打?他说左转,我说左打还是右打?这个时候发现车的两边有2棵树。车停着,不动。。。。。。再看下,前边是沟。。。。。。

学车日记(2)

风沙是大大滴,进步也是大大滴~
熄火还是常有滴~熄了火还是打不着滴~
左镜子还是看不清滴~右镜子还是来不及看滴~
见了人不知道该往哪避滴~见了狗更不知道怎么避滴~
换挡还是换错滴~油门还当刹车踩滴~
自己还是疑惑滴~教练还是直冒冷汗滴~
磕磕碰碰还是能跑几圈滴~

打火:
教练在旁边数着:一次,没着~;二次,没着~;三次,没着~;四次,~快松手!!!!!!!!!!

转弯:
教练教的:左转的时候到路中线打轮,右转的时候在路边缘线打轮–
教练猛喊:看什么呢,到路中线了,打轮呀~
我:!@#¥%……&×~
唉,其实不是我不打轮,而是那个路的质量太差了,除了路中线以外,裂缝超过1000,根本分辨不出那条是路中线哦~

会车:
情景1:一辆小教练车在我行驶的路上冲我快速冲过来
教练:不用躲,他不敢撞你~
情景2:一辆运土的大货车在我行驶的路上冲过来
教练:快躲躲啊,你敢撞他?

会人:
情景:一个人站在路边,一条腿在路上
我:撞得着吗?
教练:减速,躲着点腿就行了~

会车:
情景:2条非常大的狗一前一后从左向右横穿马路
我:咋办?
教练:停车!快停车!千万别撞着它!!!! — (注意:会人的时候可不是这么说的)

刹车:
前提:上次学车总结了个窍门,刹车的时候吧离合也踩下去,不会熄火,车也不会蹦蹦的跳
这次:我右脚踩下去的同时,左脚也踩到底了,车还是蹦蹦的跳了,而且熄火了
我:(一脸茫然地)咋又熄火了,我踩离合了呀
教练:(一脸冷汗地)你看你右脚踩哪儿呢!
我低头一看,哈,油门踩到低了~~~,心情那个复杂呀

加速:
教练:换挡,加速,加速,加速,给油,加速,加速,给油……
我:~!@#¥#@%……&
教练:时速多少?
我:30左右
教练:唉,汽车呀,是个高速的交通工具,用来高速行驶滴~
我:~!@#¥%……

靠边停车:
情景:经过刚才的加速,速度60,横冲直撞在乡间公路上
教练:靠边停车!
我:……%#@@%×&
教练:恩,减速太慢啦,路都不够你跑的啦。加速不敢加,减速有什么可犹豫的呀
教练:恩,停得不错,有什么体会吗?
我:蒙的~
教练:!@#¥%~

换挡:
教练:换挡时机掌握的不错,不过,你想换几档?
我:从5档换4档~
教练:低头看看~
晕,怎么在2档上啊
教练:换挡时机掌握不错……
我抢过来说:对不起,又换错了~(心情又一次复杂呀)

学车日记(三)

得到教练的表扬啦,用2个小时的时间学会了贴库和移库,信心一下子涨到了前所未有的程度。
只是深感应该增强锻炼了-打了2个小时轮,居然连倒档都按不下去了。最后一次挂倒档,右手怎么都按不下去,教练在旁边那个笑啊,最后说“俩手按”,我只好把左手也加上,总算是按下去了……,教练差点笑岔气~~

旁边那个女教练好厉害,一直训她的学生……还好,我还算开窍儿……

现在胳膊痛,肩膀痛,腰痛,腿痛,手也肿了……不过还是非常开心。
建议看到我博客的女同学,穿一双坡跟的鞋,非常有助于控制离合,还有就是,把座椅的靠背调整下,这样也助于控制离合。嘿嘿


学车日记(四)

这次把蝴蝶桩全部练过了。居然还敢上了一小阵瓢泼大雨,体验了下雨中开车的感觉,嘿嘿。

这次明显发现再贴库和倒库的时候,当车身进了2根杆中间的时候,车速会明显加快,冥思苦想了一段时间之后,自己总结成是车身和车轮处在那种状态的时候,车速会加快,然后颇有心得的去与教练交流,教练耷拉着眼皮说:嗯,不是的,是因为那里是下坡。¥#@%……&×&%

大雨过后,教练说:“你自己练吧,我下去坐会儿,&……%@¥%……×&。” 可惜当时我没听清他说的后半句话@!@。等他下了车之后,我开始挂挡,打轮向前开,就听教练在后边喊“快停车!!!!!!”。我猛刹车,回头一看,咦,怪异,后备箱盖居然开着呢!!!原来教练说的後半句话是“我倒点水去,你等我倒完水再开。” 晕!

学车日记(五)

这次练过了16小时,看来58个小时也不是很难熬的嘛~
等教练的时候,碰到一个女孩,犹犹豫豫的走过来,以下是我们的对话:
女孩:你学了多长时间了?
我:10多个小时了
女孩:哦~(犹豫了下,继续说),那第一来也是在这里等吗?
我:对。
女孩:(又犹豫了很长时间,继续问),头一节课都干什么呢?
我:给你看看车的结构,原地打轮,挂档,然后出去跑一圈。
女孩:(大松了一口气的样子)哦~
女孩:(颇为轻松地说)教练还带我们跑一圈么?
我:不,是你带教练跑一圈。
女孩:@#¥%……&×(惊恐的表情无法形容)

在路上跑的时候,碰到前边有个新手,开得非常之慢,每次转弯都会先停车,我在后边跟着她跑了2圈,后来我实在受不了了,问教练“我可以超车么”,教练耷拉着眼皮说“我就等着你超车呢”。。。。。。

ps:
昨天和三大件同学讨论跑偏的问题,尤其是在换档的时候。三大件同学发出一声感叹“哦,新手都是这样子滴。。。。。。”
原来,车是不是跑偏,要看是谁开的呀。

学车日记(六)

周六,天气多云转阴,微风,学车指数4。
这次就一个字:晕!
定点停车:感觉竿到了车离挡风玻璃右边的1/6处时踩刹车停车之后,车超过竿10cm,正好在可接受的范围内。如果追求恰到好处,总是不是过了就是离的太远。所以还是不要太追求完美的好:)

坡起:慢点轰油门慢点抬离合就是了,松手刹一定要快。后边黑压压的一堆车等着上坡呢,所以,一定小心再小心,千万不要弄得心情复杂呀~

单边桥:说着也没什么难的,不过做起来还是很难的。反正,稀里糊涂的就上去了,稀里糊涂的就下来了~

侧边停车:怎么感觉都觉得别扭,不过感觉还是比前边几项简单些。

直角转弯:教练说:看前边的白线到你车玻璃的这个地方打轮~ 我说:白线? 教练说:对 我说:报告教练,没有白线哈 教练说:没有? 我说:没有 教练抬头看了下,说:就那呢,白的,磨掉了一半,土遮住一半的 我再仔细看了下,晕!!!!磨掉了一半,被土遮住一半!!!!

连续弯路:我几乎是手不摸方向盘的就过去了~因为教练在转方向盘~我连路是怎么拐弯的都没看清楚

限宽门:竿挂在门中间倒是很简单,不过一定要记住,车是从较窄的那边过去~我第一次是从较宽的那边得意洋洋的过去的……

连续障碍:我车开到那条路上,冲着井盖就过去了,教练喊:干嘛去,这个不考!!!晕,我想主动一下,时不予我呀~

金统领教程-百米加减档

金统领教程-百米加减档

本来百米加减档没啥好说的,基本没啥技巧,但是加减档本身却非常有用,所以也讨论一下行驶的时候的加减档应用吧,欢迎大家来讨论哦。

1. 练习要领
加减档是最基本的了,第一次上车就是反复的加档减档练习,但是新学员练路一开始往往觉得最难的就是加减档,一换档就手忙脚乱,特别是刚学完桩后第一次练路,离合不踩到底就换档、抬离合太快车子顿挫、车速跟档位不符合的。。。至于弯中加减档就更不用说了。

练习加减档,最好的方法不是去练百米加减档科目,就那一百米什么也练不出来,最好的方法就是跑长路,平时练路的时候多让师傅带着跑跑圈,加减档自然而然就熟练了。别只在井盖、单边、侧方。。。那里排队。特别是京东教练场的,因为路考科目都集中在一起,车多弯多路口多,基本只能挂2档3档,不如多去北边的那些长路上跑跑,跑的过程中自己加加减减,很快连弯中加减档都熟练了。

2. 考试技巧
万一加减档练的不熟练,为了应付考试,可以偷点懒:)
加档:挂1档带油起步,起步后不用加油立刻换2档,每踩一脚油门换1个档升3档、4档、5档
减档:加到5档后脚移到刹车上但不踩,只踩离合降档4档、3档,踩刹车减速降2档

窍门在于5档减4档、4档减3档时不用踩刹车,因为加速距离短,车速并不够5档,所以如果踩刹车狠了反而容易因为车速过低而车抖。

京东考试场里面只有两个百米加减档,在南门口向北的路上,而且离小客的科目区域比较远,一般都不考。其实JCSS通过起步和行驶过程就能知道你加减档水平,不用专门考。

学车日记(七)

人一懒,事情就会一拖再拖。
发现教练还是挺负责任的,每个项目都带着练习一遍,新手也亲自给讲,也不骂人,嘿嘿

学车日记(八)

本次终于约够了30小时,可以去约考桩了

这次在考试场地里练桩,发现这真是个赚钱的行业,居然一个小时要20块钱,如果用考试车则是一把20块钱~据说一个人一下子卖了15把~我的仰慕之情油然而生啊~

水泥地面确实比沙地要好练的多,车速比较慢并且更容易控制,只是打轮更费点劲儿。而且练习的时候会发现后视镜里的杆儿像森林那么多,很难分得清那根是属于自己的~建议练习之前在自己的竿上做点自己的标记,比如绑个塑料袋之类的,以免看错杆打错轮~

学车日记(九)

昨天考过了桩,很开心,有一点点心得:
1、打轮的速度:
这个其实并不是一定要快打或一定要慢打。实际上除了贴库和倒库的最后的2圈回轮要快打以外,其他的打轮都是要根据车速来做的。如果车速快则打快点,如果车速慢则慢打。而且强烈建议女生因为力气小,可以讲移库和贴库的最后2圈回轮在把车停住之后打–打过后车就正了,导进去自然位置很好。

2、关于考试车:
我指的是京东考试场的车。那个车是很破的,不过感觉还是比教练车好做些–因为方向盘比教练车轻些。所以,习惯了教练车使劲打轮的同学要稍微松着点劲。而且它的离合比较高,同样是适应了教练车的同学要注意,同样的离合高度,考试车会比教练车慢。基于上边2个因素,很容易出现车速慢但打轮太快的问题,导致车不入位。

3、关于紧张:
其实考场的硬件条件比练习场好的多,只要在练习场里做的还可以的都可以过的,所以并没有必要紧张。而且有2次机会,不行可以重来一次嘛~

学车科目练习

总则:进科目时开右转向灯,出科目时开左转向灯。通过限制门时用2档,其他用一档通过。

1、定点坡起:
(1)一档上坡,车身距右侧路边30公分以内。车前保险杠定于桩杆线上停车-先踩离合后踩刹车,摘空档,拉手刹。
(2)踩离合器,挂一档。踩油门至发动机转速达2000转/分,慢抬离合至发动机声音降低,发闷,车身微微颤动时,松手刹。

2、侧方停车:
(1)打右灯,前进,看左前竿过右手后车门小三角窗后,停车。
(2)倒车,看左前竿到右后车门小三角窗正中,向右打2轮,然后看左后视镜,右后边竿从车左侧露出时,向左回两轮,再看左前竿到右后视镜正中时,再向左打2轮,看车身正,停车。
(3)打左灯,前进,车头右角出左前竿时,右回2轮,右后视镜出左前竿时,右打一轮,车身扭正时,将轮回正。

3、直角转弯:
(1)车身紧靠路中心线前进,当车前保险杠行至直角进口三分之二处时,向右打一圈半,车身顺直后将轮向左回正。
(2)看左前门三角窗后角对准直角弯里突出点时,迅速向左打2轮,车身快扭正时,向右回2轮。

4、曲线行驶:
(1)车头出左边线二分之一,向右打一轮,车头右角出右边线时将轮回正。车左机盖棱触到右边线时向左打一轮,车头左角出右边线时向左推半轮
(2)车头左角触到左边线时将轮回正,车头出左边线二分之一时向右打一轮,车头右角触到左边线时,向右推半轮。

5、单边桥
(1)车左机盖棱对准左桥中心线稍偏右,上桥。等车左后轮下桥,迅速右打1轮,左机盖棱对准右桥中心线左打2轮,车身正右回一轮,上右桥。

路考通过啦~

昨天路考顺利通过,终于走完了学车的历程~一路走来,收获很大,而且很庆幸自己碰到了一个很好的教练–在和其他教练的学员的交谈中,还是感觉教练教给了自己更多的东西。教练比较常说的话是“慢点没关系,把动作做到位,稀里糊涂的还不如不做”,可惜这句话没对我说过–可能是因为我还算是每次都能把动作做到位吧,哈哈。
上车之初跑路的时候,每次刹车都是一顿一顿的,开始的时候教练在我刹车的时候紧紧的抓着扶手,后来扶手不用抓了,后来在我刹车的时候也敢喝水了,呵呵,一方面是习惯了一顿一顿的刹车,另一方面是我刹的越来越平稳了。
现在的考试其实也不像很多人说的那么严格,其实只是桩考,因为是红外的仪器检测考试,是一板一眼的以外,三项和路考都是由警察叔叔来考的。警察叔叔也没什么可怕的,只要考试的时候不熄火,一般都是可以过的-尤其是漂亮MM~只要记住“人民警察为人民”就好了。

另外,感觉驾校的工作人员也挺不容易的,路考的时候,他们在旁边,只要考试车一停下来,就跑上去问警察叔叔要不要喝水,考试车一起步,他们就跑到考试车后边,给学员拦住后边驶来的车辆,避免他们不小心干扰考试。考试路上大部分的社会车辆都很配合考试车,不过,真的很鄙视那些见了考试车就加油,甚至去别考试车的司机。

路考的时候发生了比较好玩的事儿:我是最后一个考的,当时路上已经没有车了,我发挥也很好。靠边停车后,那个很帅气的警察叔叔问“以前摸过车么”,我说“没有”。警察叔叔又说“哦,不错,速度很好,角度也很好,开得真不错”, 我心中满是欢喜呀~下了车回味回味,越来越觉得不对劲。那句“以前摸过车么”真让我后怕,这可是警察叔叔啊,如果真的以前摸过车,这个时候回答个“摸过” 岂不成了“无证驾驶” — 这个处罚最重可是N年不许驾车的呀~嘿嘿嘿嘿~不管警察叔叔是不是真的是个套(这个警察叔叔长的很帅哦,所以相信他也是不经意问滴)~,反正碰到这样的话,无论如何还是回答“没有”的好,嘿嘿嘿嘿~

最后,教练送给我一句话“以后有学车的,带来找我”,那么如果有学车的朋友,来找我哦~

学车日记也到此结束~就等着去领本本啦~

PS,
教练是金统领的梁志才~

PopCap's Jason Kapalka

这个是Jason Kapalka接受GI采访的那个文章。因为GI要求注册用户才可以看,而它的注册流程实在是太汗。因此全文COPY到这里。原文地址是:http://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/2010-09-02-popcaps-jason-kapalka-article 和http://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/2010-09-02-popcaps-jason-kapalka-part-two-interview。

Part One:

Although just 10 years old, Popcap Games is something of a grand old man in the current gaming scene. Tackling browser, mobile and social games years before the start-ups that now dominate the headlines, it has been quietly consistent, growing in stature thanks to a twin philosophy of new ideas and regularly iterating existing properties and concepts. Despite both commercial and critical success with Peggle and Plants vs Zombies, the 50 million-selling match-3 title Bejewelled is indeed the jewel in its crown – even transitioning well to Facebook and microtransactions with its Blitz reinvention.

GamesIndustry.biz caught up with PopCap’s thoughtful yet outspoken Chief Creative Officer and co-founder Jason Kapalka to hear his feelings on the rush towards social games, the future of the Apple vs Google vs Microsoft mobile war, the problems with Facebook, and the trends he’s seen come and go doing PopCap’s long tenure on what was once known as “casual” gaming.

Q: So PC, Mac, iPhone, iPad, in-browser, Google Chrome, Facebook: will Android be next?

Jason Kapalka: We’re working on it. I think it’s inevitable, it’s just right now it’s an awkward platform because they’re changing so much and they have all these different hardware layouts. The nice thing with iPhone is there’s one – well, now it’s two – there’s one resolution, one piece of hardware, it’s very straightforward. Android’s not as bad as the old days, when you had to make the game for like 300 handsets. But it’s still like three or four, or however many weird versions from various different manufacturers. It definitely makes it more work; Google really need to get a handle on it if they want to push it to more developers. I think it’ll happen, it’s just that it’s definitely a hurdle to get over right now.

It’s a hassle that iPhone developers don’t have, and the marketplace for Android is still a bit confusing because all the different carriers have their own versions of it. I think it’ll all get better, unless Google gets sued out of existence by Oracle. Right now it’s definitely not the ideal game platform – very promising but there’s still a bit of work to get there.

Q: How confident are you about which platforms you’re going to target the hardest, given how many seem to be cropping up now – mobile, social, desktop, tablet?

Jason Kapalka: It is unfortunate. From our point of view, we’re pretty agnostic about platform. The truth is we like Apple, we like Google, we like Microsoft. We’re just trying to reach players. And the best way to reach players is the platform that they favour. Unfortunately right now you’ve got three of four of these big players, who are all at each other’s throats and not at all co-operating as far as standards and so forth go. So we have the obvious issue of, y’know, Flash. It might be good for doing a game on Facebook, it might be even conceivable on Android – but it’s absolutely not feasible on iPhone.

There are other issues like that, between Microsoft, Google and Apple – they all hate each other. Well, they’re all competing. It’s very hard to build stuff that works on all those platforms. You almost want to sit back and see who wins. Or ideally that they at least agree on some sort of standards, so you can say “alright, what’s the standard, you tell me? Is it Flash, is it HTML5, is it somethin’ else?”

If people can agree on one of those things, from our point of view we can work with everybody. As it is, when they’re fighting each other we have to try and support all three of them which means we’ve got to spend three times as much effort to do that. That’s tricky in terms of costs and to make time to make stuff, so we’re looking forward to some kind of unification, whether that’s by a victor or by a truce. That’d be better for us and ultimately better I think for game players.

Q: I see you’ve got Plants Vs Zombies on Chrome Web Store as well, and there’s new streaming stuff coming through too. How far do you intend to pursue that as well as the mobile battle?

Jason Kapalka: We’re trying all these things. They’re all experimental right now and we don’t know which will work and which will end up falling by the wayside. Generally PopCap has tried to be fairly catholic and do a lot of different things without jumping on any one bandwagon. It’s very hard to predict the future. You can always find someone who has gotten lucky. But it’s the Vegas fallacy. You can always find one guy who’s gone to Vegas and made a fortune on slot machines, but that’s not necessarily the same guy you want to invest your money in.

The same problem is true in the high-tech field. A few years ago mobile happened to be the big thing, and so someone like Jamdat did very well and sold to EA for $700 million or whatever. Were they especially smart, or did they just happen to be the right company at the right time? And now you’ve got social companies doing the same thing. And not to say that they did anything wrong, but if you’re a game company you run the risk of trying to follow every trend and they’re not all going to work out.

There are plenty of trends that we’re quite happy we didn’t do anything with, like just a couple of years ago it was Flash MMOs, like Club Penguin. After Club Penguin sold to Disney, everyone and their dog were trying to make some sort of tween-orientated Flash MMO. One or two of them are still around, but most of them are the ones who were there before – Habbo Hotel and Club Penguin. Everything else just kind of [crashing aeroplane sound.]

Q: Could it be similar to what happened with World of Warcraft and traditional MMOs? All those giant projects designed to compete, but half of them have closed and the rest have gone free to play.

Jason Kapalka: Well, yeah. And we’ll see how it goes right now. I think the vibe I’m getting certainly is that people are really deciding that MMOs are a bad place to do business. There’s gonna be one or two last gasps – probably [Star Wars] The Old Republic will be, well… I know it’s a big, expensive project, and if that underperforms, that’ll probably be the last time someone decides to spend $100 million on a WoW-killer. I think they’ll try and come at it from a different direction.

The truth is that Farmville is probably more of a WoW-killer than the Old Republic. I doubt that it’s exactly the same crowd, but I have a feeling there’s starting to be a little bit of that, and probably more so as you go forwards in time – as WoW players get older, have less spare time. I’m 100 per cent sure that people who stop playing WoW are playing FarmVille. Just because they don’t have time for a three hour raid, they’ve got time to put down a few crops or so forth.

Q: That seems to be becoming the commodity: time. We’ve got all these demands for attention, how do you make a game that stands out amidst all that noise? Is Bejewelled Blitz, a game that only takes a minute, the future of games?

Jason Kapalka: People are arguing if that’s good or bad; it’s hard to say, but from my point of view, as you get older and you have a job and a family and stuff like this, this idea of your early 20s gaming where you can sit around in a basement with your buddies and kick back and… I think I played Super Mario 3 for three days straight, that sort of thing. That’s not going to happen again. I’m never going to have three days to play videogames straight. I don’t even have three hours. That’s why World of Warcraft is right out for me. I think increasingly a lot of people are in that position, and games have to evolve to meet that need. Whether it’s a game like FarmVille or Bejewelled Blitz, or a lot of mobile games that have the same idea of “I have it wherever I go, I can play short games on it.” The game adapting to your schedule, rather than you trying to conform to the game’s demands.

Those are the kinds of the kinds of games that are probably going to be the big scary ones as far as the current guys like Blizzard, Activision, and EA are concerned. They’re going to be fighting them on unequal terms, like asymmetric warfare. So FarmVille versus WoW doesn’t seem like a fair match, but they’re not fighting on the same ground, they’re fighting in very different ways. To date, a lot of the bigger companies haven’t shown that they really understand that, or are capable of adapting to it.

Q: But we are seeing a lot of acquisitions for insane amounts of money – it seems they’re paying attention, whether or not they’re approaching it in the right way.

Jason Kapalka: They tried, Electronic Arts did try their own versions of Facebook games that didn’t work out very well, and that’s why I think they acquired PlayFish as a way to buy their way in. Whether it works out, it’s hard to say. Part of it is trying to integrate a very different company into the bigger structure. Will it happen? If it does, that’ll be good. But it’s going to be tough.

Amongst other things, those companies tend to have earn-outs, which means that PlayFish will have to have a big earn-out probably, which means they can’t just do whatever they like, they have to give EA the freedom to make money and therefore make back their investment. Which is probably three years of letting them do whatever they need to get their earnings up. Which’ll be good for making money, but maybe not for integrating them into the EA mothership… And I think you’ll see that in a lot of that, where the integration into the bigger company may be quite difficult because the cultures are very difficult and the terms of the acquisition make it hard.

So that’ll be the question. Whether companies like EA or Disney can really digest these purchases and really incorporate them into their corporate culture in a way that changes their thinking going forwards. If they just buy them and sit them there in a silo, they might do alright, but they won’t change their overall culture. This I can speak of because I was at Pogo. Pogo got bought by EA, it continues to be a profitable business, but it’s really just sat in a little silo by itself. It’s never really been incorporated into the rest of EA in useful way, and the rest of EA has never really I think learned the lessons that Pogo might have had to teach them, in terms of how Pogo was a social game company in 1999.

They still are – they’re a bit dated, they’re still using what was considered social media in 1999, which was chatrooms. Which nowadays seems more like… when people say chatrooms, they think of it as a den of perverts, they don’t think of it as a family gaming destination. But in 1999 it was. They got them and they left them frozen in time, so they haven’t really evolved.

But they would run that risk with acquisitions now; if they do the wrong thing those companies are going to end up frozen in amber and they never really change because a lot of their motivation for evolving on a Darwinist basis is taken away. Maybe it’ll work; it’s definitely going to be very interesting for the next year or so, I suspect.

Part Two:
In the first part of our interview with PopCap Game’s Chief Creative Office Jason Kapalka, he shared his thoughts on Google vs Apple, whether big companies can adjust to the new wave of mobile and social games and why FarmVille is a Warcraft-killer.

In this second part, the loquacious co-founder discusses the dangers of hasty acquisitions, Popcap’s future in the changing marketplace and the importance of brands in the Facebook age.

Q: You seem oddly relaxed about all the drama going on in the social space – is this not a fight you feel you have to win, or even really take part in?

Jason Kapalka: I don’t think we’re quite safe exactly. There’s always something surprising that can come along. I wish certainly that we’d been a bit more in the social space a bit earlier. We’ve got a foothold there with Blitz, but we’re not Zynga, we’re hardly the leader in social games. I feel we least have a beginning, I don’t feel like we’re on the outside trying to figure out how to get in. I feel PopCap’s really diversified over the last ten years, we’ve never been necessarily the biggest company doing Xbox games or mobile games, but we’ve always been able to keep our hands in all these different areas, and sort of shift as necessary to whichever platforms are doing well. We’re not trying to win the lottery, we just want to stay abreast of the stuff that’s happening and bring our games where they can be played. So I’m not that panicked about it because we’re relatively well-placed for the future. A lot of the games are the kind of thing that we do. They’re small games that work well on things like the iPhone or the iPad or on web browsers. Compared to a company that makes $50 million first-person shooters, we make small kind of things.

Q: And people don’t have to agonise about buying them…

Jason Kapalka: Yeah, and our price-points are low. I certainly wouldn’t say that we’re cocky or arrogant about things going forward, because there’s a lot of stuff that could go wrong. In general though it feels like the industry is caught up in the kind of games that we’ve always been doing. It feels less like we’re in a position where we have to argue about why casual games and other games like we do are legitimate forms of entertainment. Anyone can look around now, they look on their iPhone, they look on Facebook or at the Nintendo Wii. It’s pretty obvious that casual has kind of won, casual is the new mainstream.

Q: Can that sustain, if the reaction from new and acquired studios is to continue to make lots of FarmVille and Bejewelled clones?

Jason Kapalka: There’s going to be a lot of that. The truth is that there’s that in every industry. I mean, MMOs, there’s no shortage of terrible World of WarCraft clones that didn’t really work out, and you’ll see the same thing I think here. A handful will survive, a bunch will fail. You’re definitely in the stage right now in social games where there’s a lot of bandwagon jumping, where everyone sees moneymoneymoney and suddenly all these new companies appear… It happened before in mobile, it happened before in casual – in the past it’s tended to signal the beginning of the end.

Not necessarily of the genre, but of the sort of golden era, where everything was a fresh blue ocean and all that stuff. It’s getting into the era where it’ll be a lot more hard-fought. It’ll be tough. People will make money there, but there’ll be a lot of competition and then margins will shrink and all that sort of stuff. That’s my thought on where we’re heading with social stuff. Facebook can’t go that much faster, they’re only going to tighten up their restrictions. Sooner or later they will raise their rates, do other things like that, margins will just get increasingly tough.

You’re already sort of seeing that, a lot of the viral growth of Facebook games is now shut down, they have to do it the old fashioned way, which is by buying ads or by having something that people are actually interested in playing and actually want to want to tell their friends about. From our point of view, we can live with that. That’s an okay solution for us. So I’m fairly optimistic about the future – there’s enough crazy stuff going on that you never know what’s going to happen. I know Google are doing some sort of social network…

Q: I was going to ask about that – how much room do you think there is for another one?

Jason Kapalka: I don’t know. I like Google and frankly I kind of hope they succeed. But their track record for social stuff like Buzz and Wave and Lively isn’t so great. In terms of social and games, the two things they’re trying to do right now, they don’t have a genetic background for it. That said, they didn’t have one for phones either, and Android seems to be working out pretty good. I certainly wouldn’t count them out. I would say that if you’re going to take on Facebook right now you’ve got a pretty uphill battle. But if anyone can do it, might it be Google? Yeah, I think so.

Microsoft are trying their own thing to… [pause] Yeah, Microsoft, yeah – surprisingly, they’ve been doing some pretty good stuff lately. Some of those things like Bing and Windows Phone 7… It’s fashionable to look at Microsoft as being a bit unhip, and not quite getting it. But if you look over the last few years, they innovated pretty dramatically in a couple of key gaming areas. Xbox Live is really the model for how to do effectively a social network. Xbox Live is basically a gaming social network, and no-one’s done that better. They haven’t figured out how to carry that through effectively onto PC, but that said, might they be able to make it work on phones? Possibly. It could go either way. I could see it working either really well or not. It’ll be very interesting.

Q: They could almost start being seen as the plucky underdog, versus the Goliath of Apple.

Jason Kapalka: In some ways they almost are. And frankly if Oracle and Google beat each other up, Microsoft might be the winner. That’ll give Windows Phone 7 a lot of breathing room that they probably need.

Q: How has PopCap’s stance on new ideas versus sticking to established brands changed in this era where people don’t have the time or patience they once did to try new things? Someone came up with a list of dozens of URLs you guys had registered the other day – Pegglebingo.com, bejewelledslots.com and that sort of thing…

Jason Kapalka: Yeah…. Most of that stuff’s just protective. There’s an issue that if you don’t get those URLs and trademarks some guy squats on them and eventually you have to pay him a bunch of money. As far as brands go, they have some value. There’s no question that in some markets, like iPhone for example, it is pretty important. The iPhone App Store is such a Darwinian environment where stuff comes out there and if you can’t immediately get onto the top 10 charts you can easily just vanish. There’s no real way to market there, there’s no real way to buy ads, so a brand is the only thing you have, the only predictable way to get yourself noticed on the App Store.

There’s unpredictable ways – there’s fluke hits like Angry Birds or Doodle Jumps that come out of nowhere, but again it’s the lottery win thing. Those two have done well, they’re good games, but there’s tens of thousands of other games out there. There’s a lot of luck involved.

If Plants vs Zombies had been released on the iPhone first, it might have disappeared without a trace, but because it had a recognisable brand, because it was released on PC and Mac first, that actually built up a lot of interest, so people bought it. And then you have that cycle where because it’s on the top 10 a lot more people buy it. It’s a bit unfair, the rich get richer syndrome, but there’s nothing you can do about that. Apple can probably do better, they’re trying to do stuff like Genius to help recommend things, and it might help give some things a bit of a long tail, but until something like that happens, you really have to do your best to get them into that top ten. So brand is important there.

I think it’s less important in lots of other emerging areas. It’s not particularly important on Facebook; people might believe that Bejewelled is doing well on Facebook because it’s Bejewelled, but there’s a lot of other branded games on Facebook that failed – from Tetris to FIFA and all these things like that. And they’ve all done poorly, or at best mediocre. The viral growth is much more important – it’s the same in casual and downloadable games. The brand would get someone to try it, but it had very little effect on whether they would purchase anything or not. So it was less important than a game that had a high conversion rate. The good thing about the casual downloadable space was it really forced them to make good games, because there’s no possible way to sucker someone.

转:木梳-路也

以前贴过的《木梳》少了一句,补上:

《木梳》
路也

我带上一把木梳去看你
在年少轻狂的南风里
去那个有你的省,那座东经118度北纬32度的城。
我没有百宝箱,只有这把桃花心木梳子
梳理闲愁和微微的偏头疼。
在那里,我要你给我起个小名
依照那些遍种的植物来称呼我:
梅花、桂子、茉莉、枫杨或者菱角都行
她们是我的姐妹,前世的乡愁。
我们临水而居
身边的那条江叫扬子,那条河叫运河
还有一个叫瓜洲的渡口
我们在雕花木窗下
吃莼菜和鲈鱼,喝碧螺春与糯米酒
写出使洛阳纸贵的诗
在棋盘上谈论人生
用一把轻摇的丝绸扇子送走恩怨情仇。
我常常想就这样回到古代,进入水墨山水
过一种名叫沁园春或如梦令的幸福生活
我是你云鬓轻挽的娘子,你是我那断了仕途的官人。

转:梁雪波的《亡灵书》

亡灵书
梁雪波

那些哀伤的是火吗?一场从炎热退下的雨
熄灭了纸灰,又送来几点虫鸣
冷翅的弹奏。
我往屋外看去,空无一物。
除了黑暗,和被黑暗吸去的枯转的风叶
大地上没有人醒着,除了亡灵

除了,那个在身体里奔走的孩子
那穿过荒草地,撞见土堆
那听见脚步声不敢回头
那用手电筒照出自己苍白脸的,恶作剧的孩子
是我吗?
那疾速的奔走。是我经历的告别之夜吗?
——泪水肿胀,道路疼痛无比

啊,这一切,藏得太深了!
像秋天的蛤蟆,贴着内心湿滑的柴堆蹲下身子
却被时光所遗忘。
被坠落的火光映出它的幽暗
在梦里,为什么一个身穿雨衣的人频频造访

空无一物。对于生者来说
亡灵行走于怎样的途程?
今夜我清晰地看见自己的死亡。写作
就是一种守候的仪式。在雨水熄灭的节日,一条山路
盘向刚蓝的天空
我预感到了刺痛,张开的皮肤,辨认着前世的树声

2010/8/24

旧文一则:近5年网络诗坛诗象观察(陈仲义)

近5年网络诗坛诗象观察
——(另名“大象,生活着的茫茫的森林”[1])
陈仲义

陈仲义:当代诗歌评论家,厦门职工大学中文系主任。出版现代诗学专著6部:《现代诗创作探微》、《诗的哗变》、《中国朦胧诗人论》、《台湾诗歌艺术六十种》、《扇形的展开——中国现代诗学谫论》、《现代诗技艺透析》。

一、 良缘缔结后的“回生”
上世纪末,有关“诗歌危机”“诗歌消亡”的挽歌不绝于耳,诗歌在怨声载道中苦苦挣扎。除了“宿敌”们一如既往抨击外,来自主流文化、影视文化的挤蜕,也是个中重要原因。大概是上帝不忍心这个曾经让人心仪的缪斯过早凋谢,终于普降了一场“及时雨”。忽如一夜春风来,千树万树梨花开。世纪之交,互联网的兴起及其急剧升温,叫几乎陷于“绝境”的诗歌,有幸插上翅膀,突出重围,神奇般地缓过气来,开始出现“回生”乃至亢奋的迹象。仿佛20多年前,那一幕幕东进的卡拉ok,迅速挽救了“大众歌声”。    
何止回升,简直就像吃了“伟哥”一样。诗歌一扫几年来的阳痿,重新唤起血性、激情和冲动。单是查查附着在“乐趣园”上的诗歌网站,注册就有近百个。以我比较熟悉的福建省做佐证,截止到2005年底,福建共有诗歌网站(含论坛,下同)10个左右,作为一种平均值,由此类推,可以估测全国诗歌站点超过 300个。[2] 如此众多的诗歌营盘,在短时期内聚集起来,让人再次信服诗歌,那种“死灰复燃”的生命力。
笔者曾经发函调查几个网站,知道每个站点(排除重复的)平均每天发诗量20首左右,以此推算,全国年产量不抵于200万首。这个数字,是《全唐诗》的 40倍,也是纸介诗歌年产量的40倍。(2001年台湾陈去非曾统计说,台湾纸介诗歌和网络诗歌的生产量与2000年持平,并且每年将以10%的速度递增 [3])。 显然,陈去非的数字太保守了。大陆不过只花四、五年左右时间,它匪夷所思的“加速度”,使得网络诗歌生产线的规模,大大超过另一条纸介生产线,这种崛起速度,真可谓一天等于二十年!
网络诗歌是种约定俗成的笼统说法,暂且不做理论定义的辨析,但宜先稍加区分一下,目前所谓网络诗歌称谓,包含三种情形。第一种是纸质诗歌的 “阵地转移”,即原本传统书写位移到网上来进行,即使扩展到利用网络发表渠道,丝毫也没有改变传统书写的本质。第二种情况是运用网络高科技的交互性、数字化进行操作,真正与网络发生关联,是“网络情景中的诗歌”,通常形态是“临屏写作”——写作发表评论编辑一条龙,相当程度倚重网络技术,一些人建议称之为 “网络体诗歌”(如桑克),较为严密合理;第三种情况是极端形态——超文本•多媒体诗歌。目前所谓“网络诗歌”实质是三种形态、尤其是第一、二种形态共同构成网络诗歌这一“混称”的:普遍是既带有传统纸质书写气息,又兼带与网络技术相关联的若干特点。本文考察的对象是第一、二种情形。(而第三种极端形态:超文本诗歌与多媒体诗歌则另文)。
目前对待网络诗写也存在三种心态:一种是少数成熟的诗人不屑一顾,继续以传统纸笔拒绝屏幕;第二种是多数写作者,一般采用双栖方式,既采用传统写法又注意吸收网络技术特点,同时兼顾纸、网两头发表;而更新一代者则完全进入“临屏写作”,写作发表编辑一条龙。极少数者则充分利用网络复制粘贴等技术特点,大肆推行以技术为主导的网络体诗歌实验。
从整体上看,网络诗歌“场域”,主要体现为由趣味性搭建起来的各种网站、论坛,及其人气效果。一般认为,网站最主要的部位是论坛,论坛是压缩或省简的网站,而固定的网刊则是论坛的核心精华,它必须通过定期“筛选”,来避免大量泥沙。人们乐意把网刊比做有身份的诗歌俱乐部,它需要程序,注册准入证,而斑竹有权回绝不合格闯入者;根据兴办主旨方针,有序安排各种出场(比如有组织的选题、推荐)。论坛则多被视为更为自由进出的“聊天室”:自由摆摊、免收征管,甚至包括不删除某些非理性的、类似酗酒、斗咀、围观式帖子,热腾腾闹哄哄,很有在场感,借此也更容易积聚人气。
客观的说,1999年之前,大陆“网络诗歌”属于小荷才露尖尖角,但自身潜藏着极大的能量和无限可能性,通过不断的自我建构,到2001年以后,一个网络诗歌“场”业已成形,其标志是,有一定模式和游戏规则。比起其他文学艺术门类,网络诗歌场更像春秋战国时期的“诸侯割据”,又有点像分田到户、各自经营又经常集结交流的“自由市场”。
随便打开任何网站的“友情链结”,不管从一个字的《个》网出发,到怪兮兮的《神经病诗院》,还是从亲吻《嘴唇》开始,一直到喝足《白开水》,都会让你眼花缭乱,应接不暇。笔者收藏夹重点收有60个网站,稍一浏览,得花几天时间,且有一种无边无际的感觉。
网站、论坛争奇斗艳,日新月异,都在全力以赴打造自己的品牌特色:《诗生活》向来以它的规模著称:多栏目设置,最早成为后起网站的借鉴;诗通社丰富而及时的资讯消息,拥有广泛的覆盖面;曾经多达57期质量稳定的月刊、500多位诗人加盟的强大阵容、40多位诗评家专栏、每月诗评、翻译频道、文库观点等,显示了“大哥大”的强大实力。成立较早的《界线》,同样以全面稳定跻身“前辈”行列,它的藏诗楼、肖像馆为人们津津乐道,沙龙月会,也成为它一个拳头产品。后来居上的有《天涯诗会》,每月的推荐和多人跟进的议论、批评,把论坛打点得相当火暴。《诗歌报网站》素以活动为龙头,从大展到评选到讲座,十分活络。很早就取得独立国际域名的《中国诗人》,则保留较多传统色彩,以平和姿态倾向于诗歌普及工作。从“八千里路“扩展的《北回归线》,继续扩容到音乐、美术、雕塑,野心勃勃,表明新一轮谛造者的视野与气魄。《诗江湖》的最大收成,是不遗余力,推出一个以口语和肉身化写作为主的社团流派,成为网坛最早的黑马以及80后的“集训营”。“文学自由坛”(后挂靠到诗生活),则聚集了北大为主的才子们,形成另一路比较精致的诗风。而《扬子鳄》则到处弥漫着硝烟,招引各路人马开辟战场,短兵相接,成为人气最闹的诗歌“烽火台”。
专以收储为目的的《灵石岛》,收有古诗9万首、新诗4千首、外国诗1万多首,近年暂停歇业,但期间的规模和严谨让人充满期待。《第三条道路》稳步中立,集结一大批“中间人士”,呈现较大的包容。《或者》也因宽容和唯美倾向,取得较好口碑。《第三说》力推第三代的后续部队,经过几年不懈努力,使“中间代”命名终于赢得相当认可。以集团形式推动巾帼写作的《女子诗报》,堪称全国第一大女性诗歌网站,劲头正足,另一支同类的《翼》,也在展翅赶上。《哭与空》的“诗人救护车”,多次举办募捐救助,成为国际上少有的“诗歌红十字会”,“正视艾滋病”的专号引人瞩目。《顾城之城》的看点,除了为单个诗人“积资”,早已脱离个人主页范围,还成了一个诗歌派流的集散地。在笔者的收藏夹里,还能经常看到,《当代诗歌论坛》高举智性大旗、《红袖添香》时时回望传统、《原音》播撒“物性主义”、《荒诞工厂》继续制造荒诞、《军火库》充满爆破、《唐》空前活跃、《中国自由诗歌》到处灌水、《零空间》召唤80后、《现在》倾注“打工”、《北京评论》推崇“垃圾派”,把“崇低”的号角吹得惊天动地,(后又分裂出《垃圾派运动》)。此外《露天吧》《诗家园》《若缺》《大河风》《诗旅程》《汉诗评论》《新汉诗》《丑石》《不解》《滑动门》等等,都办起自己的特色。另有一大批诗人干脆建立个人网页:桑克、沈浩波、安琪、林童、桥、木朵、一刀、帝宇、兰马……显得异常热闹。而随着“博客诗歌”的流行,势必又为网络诗歌添油加火。
有人曾做过统计,《现代诗歌论坛》2003年2月份的点击率为82076个[4]。笔者最近随机做一次抽样:天涯诗会2005年9月4日(星期天)的诗歌发帖量,竟高达251个。如果说周日高峰期属于特例,那么第二天9月5日星期一的低谷,发表量也多达 162帖。现在天涯的“博客诗歌”们已剧增到600多家。由前面抽样数字,可以感受到诗歌写作在中国大陆的浓厚氛围。
上述种种迹象表明,以网络为载体的新一种诗歌现实正在迅速聚拢,用雨后春笋、遍地开花来形容都不为过。3年前的那个春节,附着在“乐趣园” 的数十家诗歌网站忽然惨遭关闭,除少数者幸存,几近全军复没,然而,野火烧不尽春风吹又生,经过整合,几个月后,各项诗事又蓬勃开展起来。
例如《诗歌报网站》再度策划运作第二届“全球华语网络诗歌大展”,单收到作品就有3500多篇。2004年《星星》、《南方都市报》、新浪三家强档推出“甲申风暴•21世纪中国诗歌大展”,有100多个网站参与,近万人次投稿。各种读诗会、研讨会、俱乐部、沙龙也相伴举行,如界限牵头的重庆沙龙活动长期坚持、诗歌报连续四届金秋诗会、野草南昌80后诗歌聚会、扬子鳄桂林诗会、野外论坛杭州聚会、四季诗歌诗会、诗家园无锡笔会……举不胜举。尤其是以网站为发起人的诗歌朗诵会更是多如牛毛。[5] 《红袖添香》的诗歌接力赛、同题大比拼、情诗配对、诗歌“砸砖”活动,花样翻新,有声有色。
至于奖项: 有《界线》首创网上诗歌评选的“界限诗歌奖”“汇银奖”“柔刚诗歌奖”; 《诗歌报》连续2年评选“华语网络诗歌发展十大功臣”、“2002年度十佳网络诗人”评选。此外,还有像关注80后的“野草诗歌奖”、关注作品力度的“新诗歌诗奖” 、和节日联系在一起的“情人节诗歌奖”、以及年度诗人奖、短信文学•诗歌奖,首届博客诗歌奖等等。单单2004年度,网上奖项就超过20项。这从一个侧面表明,网络“枢纽”一旦发动起来,将大大刺激诗歌人气。网络诗歌是特别需要人气的。反过来,各地诗歌网事活动迅速流布,也大大推动诗歌生产力。
而网刊、选本才是其间最具价值的体现,两者互动共同构成诗歌的“选拔赛”、乃至诗歌的“全运会”。这几年,地处边远的笔者就收到13种表明大观式精粹式选本: 计有《2001年度中国网络诗歌》(墓草主编),该选本最大特点是直接介入中国当下现实,一扫书斋圈子和修辞气息,充满底层的疼痛感。《中国诗人网络诗歌精选》(478页,李可可主编),以300:1的苛刻比例筛选,可见沙里掏金的认真劲儿。《诗江湖2001网络诗歌年选》(符马活主编),突出了当下诗歌现场尤其推举肉身化书写。此外,还有《网络诗歌300家》、(陈村主编)、《诗生活论坛2000——2001优秀诗选》、网络诗典(马铃薯兄弟主编)、《中国当代网络爱情诗选》(任轩主编)、《诗歌的界限——网上现代诗选》(重庆出版社2002年出版)、《2002年中国网络诗选》(诗歌报网站诗丛书一套12本,新疆人民出版社)、《诗歌在网络》(04年中国文联社,老皮、老茂主编)、《中国网络诗人100家》(04年、小鱼儿陈忠村主编)、《第三条道路》(03年内部,庞清明林童主编)、《垃圾派运动》(04年内部,凡斯主编)等。而“汉诗评论”论坛与《伯乐》杂志连手策划“华山论剑 ——2003全球华语网络诗歌全攻略(大展) ”,不到一周,就印出16开300页码专号,速度之快,令人咋舌。北京伯乐文学研究所再推出超大阵容《2004首届网络汉诗集团军大展》,厚达400页,超大16开。2005年夏天《第三条道路》隆重推出600多页“创刊”,显示另一集团军的份量。同年,世中人等刊行《垃圾派十诗人作品集》。世中人的汉语诗歌资料馆自2002年开始制作网络诗歌刊物纸版,已经完成40期计48卷(每卷大32开200页左右)。至2005年底,已收集的网刊100多种 1000多期,正逐步将它们制成纸版保存。并计划出版2000册诗人作品集(05年已完成100册)。这种自觉的民间资料保存,从另一个侧面反映网络诗歌业已被提前纳入“建设”轨道。
网上各种名目的征稿组稿,尤其是写作命名,同样一浪卷过一浪,不断引发较劲,期间影响较大有:下半身写作(沈浩波)、垃圾写作(老头子)、低诗歌(龙峻、花枪)、后政治诗写作(杨春光)、荒诞写作(祁国)、民生写作(蒋品超)、废话写作(杨黎)、灌水写作(蓝蝴蝶紫丁香)、反蚀主义(丁友星)、俗世此在写作(小王子)、类型写作(张小云)、物写作(舒非苏)、智性写作(鲁西狂徒)、地缘写作(梦亦非)、回归写作(野航)、存在写作(陶春)、非诗主义(白马黑马)、感动写作(海啸、马知遥)、草根写作(李少君)、完整性写作(世宾)等等。各等写作倡导与理念,大相径庭,互不谦让,大抵能自圆其说。有趣的是,其中一些倡导者仿佛窥到诗歌一个“奥秘”:倘若不把观念推向极端,命名的效果就会大打折扣。所以他们竭力把某些诗歌元素强调到极端,所谓诗歌的潮流和派别,就在激烈的命名“注册”中——抢占先机与收获影响。
不言自明,网上主力军,几乎清一色为60至80年代出身的作者。60年代的“老前辈”们大家耳熟能详。单是“70后”经常见到的名单就不止百号人:胡续冬、蒋浩、王熬、燕窝、康城、墓草、魔头贝贝、马非、盛兴, 狼人、刘春、刘川、 阿翔、朱剑,朵鱼、安石榴、黄金明、简单、丁燕、紫衣侠、东篱、孙磊、三子、泉子、孙慧峰、林忠成、巫昂、尹丽川,君儿、七月的海、唐果、李小洛、吕叶、唐兴玲、谢湘南……不胜枚举。“80后”当仁不让,出现阿斐、老刀、余毒、小王子、黄土、他爱、谷雨、啊松啊松、丁成、唐不遇、郑小琼、巫女琴丝、水晶珠链、莫小邪、兰逸尘、等等。而网上初习者更是一拨紧接一拨,有人搜索出一份名单,发现分别以体积、数字、季节、金属、武器、果蔬、色彩等命名的就有近千人。而网上曾一度流行模仿水浒座次的“诗坛英雄一百零八将”、依照元素周期表排列的诗歌一百一十人,和套搬封神榜的三十六大诗歌天王,评点与排行充满戏谑,却由此见出嘉年华式的热闹和想象力的张狂。
相比之下,有影响的网络批评家似乎缺乏一些。2003年7月23日多春鱼、人面鱼等人就“谁是目前最受欢迎、最活跃的网络诗坛评论家或言论家”,作了首次网络公开调查与民主评选,(时间极短,选票面也不宽),评选的结果是:杨春光、汉上刘歌、鲁西狂徒、林童、党管生、李磊、丁友星、红尘子、小鱼儿、白地、何必、赵思运当选。
笔者以为,不应忽视的作者还有:张嘉谚的老道,宋子刚的哲思、木朵的绵密、李霞的现场追踪,及其他活跃人士赵卫峰、马知遥、梦亦非、李少君、向卫国等,包括首都师大诗歌学的博士和博士后:张桃洲、荣光启、霍俊明、张立群等。有意思的是,诗人杨然采用章回与杂文笔法,写出纪实性诗幻评论小说 ——《网幻》(60回20万字),融诗人、情境、细部、帖子材料、品读为一体,淋漓痛快,至少在网络批评文体上玩出了一个花样。
值得欣慰的是,大多数传统诗刊,一反从前犹疑审慎态度,以前所未有的热情接纳这一新生事物。《诗选刊》大版大版收罗,接连推出网络专辑多次,其势头有增无减。《扬子江》和《中国诗人》也丝毫不让。不少刊物每个月都有网站介绍和“网事”记录。《星星》从2002年起率先开办“网事”。《诗刊》的青年版也用大量篇幅主动关注。毫不夸张的说,网络诗歌已经成为传统刊物选稿的重要传送带。民刊、网刊、“公刊”三者界线逐渐模糊,众多诗爱者重新回归队伍,诗歌的土壤、气候、氛围得到改善,诗歌人气指数一路攀升,诗歌回暖是一个不争的事实。甚至有人略带夸张的说:诗歌热得脱下了短袖衫。
然而,在这个热气腾腾、闹哄哄的自由市场里,除了繁荣景象外,少不了水货、假冒、膺品,同时伴生着一股漫骂风气。也许是太自由了,缺乏起码的自律和游戏规则,动不动就发生作者与作者、作者与网站、网站与网站间的“混战”,什么脏话都泼出来,不堪入目。
比如 2001年6月开始的发生在《诗江湖》《唐》《橡皮》三个网站间,长达数月的总共4次舌枪唇战,留下不少后遗症。有人称之为无聊的”意气之争”和过分聪明的”倾扎”。 2003年更是争吵之年,按小鱼儿的说法:有垃圾派炒作、荒诞派集结、现在主义诗歌抱团、下半身抵抗,以及“二黄之争”,老非非与新非非的“真假非非”之争.。[6] 他认为多数是争夺话语权和争夺眼球关注力,和新的写作主张对旧有写作主张的攻城与取代;最典型莫过于“下半身”与“垃圾派”火拼数月,卷入者多达几十人,最后极端到封ID、禁IP。[7]
诸如此类的撕杀,有些涉及到诗学问题,本是好事,却往往夹带人身攻击,充塞不堪入目的污言秽语,有人忍不住跳出来呵斥:“双方可谓半斤八两。不论谁对谁错,其言行已超出诗歌范围。如果要说他们与黑社会还有什么区别的话,那就是他们还有个“诗人”身份。他们的言行给诗人这一称号带来莫大亵渎,同时也对诗歌进行肆意凌辱。” [8] 2005年5月23日,垃圾派掌门人皮旦自己发出置顶帖:“这两天删去约四百个骂贴、水帖”。数量之多可见诗坛的漫骂早以蔚然成风。它反映出早期网络诗歌批评不成熟的一面:太多“朋党”成分,帮派习气,暴露出写作者心态浮躁、自我膨胀;令人担忧的“伦理的越界与败落”(张德明)。
2004年10月5日至20日,平时不太起眼的“极光”论坛也发生了一场论争。应该说,它是近年来比较合乎人们心目中的学理性。 “极光”注册用户由原来的400余人陡增到1200余人,波及到“天涯社区”、“广东诗人俱乐部”、百灵网文化频道等多个网站,论争涉及到数十个问题:关于 “新抒情”、关于主客观写作 、口语化、诗歌与人的承担等等。这是纷乱坛诗趋于有序的一个征兆,不过很快就走马灯过去了。同年,网上爆发“高诗歌”与“低诗歌”的所谓“现代文化战争”,一旦网络战争不断成为家常便饭,也就见怪不怪了。
2005年6月,人马众多的“第三条道路”正当兴旺之际,也发生始料未及的分化,两位领军人物“谯(达摩)林(童)”之争,大有无法挽回的破裂之势,它是涉及相关诗学、理念、误解、名分、利益诸多复杂纠葛的爆发。网上频频发生“内讧”与“外战”,可是大陆独到的中国特色?(反观台湾诗网相当平静)相信随着时间推移,越来越多的人将清醒意识到:唯有诗歌,才是高于一切的;再怎样辉煌折腾的网事,终究都抵不上完成一首好诗。
2005年9月16日,先锋诗人杨春光猝然离世,他是诗坛最具争议的人士之一,有关他的人品作品,再度引发大规模交锋。在拒绝杨春光的时代,他的自由独立获得民间普遍认同。悼念杨春光的诗歌和和相关评说,成了网络一道绝无仅有的风景线。   
客观的看,这2年网上最大的“乱象”,还是有关 “垃圾写作”,争吵文章多达数百篇,从《北京评论》到《垃圾运动》,其理论专号和众多个人集子,是近年诗界继《下半身》后最大的暴动。表面上看好像是《垃圾派》与《下半身》双方你死我活的搏杀,本质上是解构话语在更大范围上的延伸扩展。针对网络时代的审美习性、思维方式、伦理道德,垃圾写作的颠覆冲击波,不亚于当年的“非非”,它是后现代语境在高科技援助下赤裸裸的演出,预计这样大大小小的争战和演出,今后还会以各种面目出现,也许只有这样,才最充分满足网络诗歌“场域”的规则与游戏欲望。
在此期间,有一篇文章值得研讨,是张嘉谚(老象)十一次易稿写就的《中国低诗潮》,他主要从意识形态出发,力推“崇低”‘向下“的写作维度,为这一潮流的“脏乱差”做辨解,他认为被人们所诟病的”脏、鄙、流、俗、粗“,正是书写者们为追求自由独立,所必须做出的”出奇制正“,他们的审丑、揭伪、骂恶、操蛋作业,目的是为着历史性的“话语换场”。[10]

二 诗写“大跃进”的利与弊
网络技术的迅速发展,叫强大的空间性,瓦解了时间意义的话语霸权,解放了生产力,纸介写作遭到前所未有的挑战。尤其是传播方式的改变,重新挑逗众多人口的写作欲望。而以冲动、血性著称的诗写者们,一旦相识相聚于网上,就好比泡在千千万万个酒吧、沙龙、咖啡馆,他们的关系就像牌友、票友、球友一样,称兄道弟,没日没夜尽性在写作狂欢里。
这种临屏写作,已与纸介书写拉开明显距离,它为诗歌发展注入强大动力。以笔者乐观立场看,它可能促成一次“诗歌大跃进”。从诗学角度出发,如下明显的优势是有目共睹的: 其一,由于它彻底断开文学固有体制,心灵世界获得最大敞开,没有什么东西能够被限制,每个人随时随地都可以完成自唱自娱的诗歌卡拉OK,诗歌写作获得前所未的自由。其最大特点是随意和即兴,它给写作者带来高度亢奋,也带来 “自动化”倾向。自动化在放弃深度挖掘时,收获了自动享乐。自由、享乐、快乐成了临屏书写的最大法则。它的心理学依据是:写作主要是基于欲望表现,基于一种生命力的驱使,一种自我实现的渴望和率性而为。所以寻找自己心灵栖息的场所,已成为网络诗人生命的一部分。它能释放网络诗人内心的紧迫感和功利性,比较符合诗歌创作的初始意义。[11] 诗歌的独立自由精神收获最大的狂欢,诗歌的魅力得到重新的焕发。 其二,临屏写作,可以实行真正意义上的平等对话、平等交流。诗歌圆桌全面消解话语霸权、经典和权威。无数BBS、广场、论坛、聊天室,挣脱体制与等级控制,营造了相对主义对话空间,所有的高低贵贱一律失效。在这种氛围里,诗歌文本得到最大敞开。话语权把握在作者手中,而读者拥有最终的选择权,甚至重新创作权。双方构成直截了当、甚至肆无忌惮的批评与反批评,诗歌的民主精神获得实质性展开。 其三,快捷运作,及时“在线”,特别是“写编读评一条龙”,刺激着诗歌生产力。作者、读者、编者、批评者,几乎在第一时间做互动响应,有力地促进竞争与原创。同时毫不费力的资源共享,完全可以做到“瞬间全球通”。各种细读、诠释、点评、批注,在最快时间内涌进千家百户。(从前编辑发行一部诗选起码得花半年,现在则三两天功夫,效率提高几十倍)。诗歌写作的普及、诗歌的阅读和传播,从来没有像今天这样得到广泛推广。诗歌在大众化、生活化方面与后现代语境,取得相当程度的吻合。虽然有人嘲笑它是一种便捷的文化“快餐”,但扪心自问,生活,真离得开快餐吗?其四,随之而来,大量口语、网络语进入屏幕。尤其是键盘输入,敲击与修改的便捷,造成各种谐音、错别字,代用语,对应符号,以及各种始料未及的搭配…..这就为语词的变造提供巨大空间,而诗歌是最讲究语词的私奔、外遇的。借助技术上的支撑与便利,语词的刷新机率大大提升了。不管是不期而遇还是有意为之,语词环境充满随机应变和冒险刺激,它和日常生活容易打成一片,赢得了更为亲近人心的平台。   
有人认为,纸介思维造成直线单向思维,而网络是众多节点相互连接,形成一种非平面,立体化无中心的边缘网络结构,故书写及传播方式改变,将在多大程度变革思维方式,尚有待进一步考察,但其空间上的广延,由此带来超文本铆接,多媒体文本的势在必行,是不争的事实。它将在多大程度上影响新诗的前景,是不可小觑的。已经有一些研究者十分坚信:“网络诗将导致现代汉诗全方位的改变,甚至由此产生新的美学革命和文体革命。”[12] 诗人们更是高喊着“不可知的美已经产生”(欧亚)。 而目前的端倪是,它“孪生”下来的写作习性:即兴、即时、随意、第一时间发表,立马反馈……至少已对传统纸介书写的思维与传播提出“修正”要求了。
故从乐观方面估测,笔者以为,网络诗歌的兴起,可能催化一次诗歌的全民大跃进。我指的全民,不是1958年六亿人的热火朝天,每个县天天生产民歌李白。而是指60、70、80年代出生的年轻人,他们是最直接的响应者与受惠者。而且愈往后出生的愈是,他们几乎与网络一起成长,网络极大地训练了他们,反过来,借助这一载体,诗歌写作风气的“传染”,比以前容易波及千家万户,扩散成新一轮热潮。
笔者向来认为,网络书写的最大收益是诗歌“速成”。试想从前,一个入门者从阅读、描红到涂鸦几句象模象样的,学徒期至少得3、4年,达到发表水准基本成熟的,也该八年、十年。而现在呢?写作时间可缩短3倍。缩短诗歌学徒期,是网络带给写作者最大优惠。据介绍,2001年天津的君儿,给人印象平平,上网 2年后,“才情横溢简直变了个人”,“八匹马都挡不住她的狂奔”。比如2004年福建的冰儿,该年三月下旬上网,就被诗歌的梦魇追赶着,没日没夜地写,坐着写,站着写,到年底7个月间共写出短诗321首,200行以上的长诗、组诗十三首,一百行以上的长诗十五首,评论文章14篇。[13] 数量如此惊人,完全是网络强刺激的结果。即便像有20年诗龄的刘歌同志(汉上刘歌),触网刚2年也一发不可收拾。700多天写成400首诗,平均2天一首,诗评数十篇,3天完成长诗《天地自容》,在9个网站引起讨论,最后结集两大卷,这是几年前不敢想象的。[14] 网上构成巨大的写作“场”,无时不在激荡你燃烧你,四面八方辐射的能量,比黄埔军校的强化集训还见效,它真是一所没有围墙的诗歌大学校,让一茬茬见习生迅速“拔苗助长”,也让一些老作者“返老还童”。有乐观者言:谁能肯定互联网不会生下我们时代的惠特曼?[15]
然而,网络书写所带来的弊端也是严重的。也许看到较多阴暗面,少数人给予强烈否定。比如长河落日2003年12月22日在诗歌报网站发表题为《网络诗歌,中国诗歌的最后挣扎和死亡》,他厉声道:“网络使中国新诗一时出现了万千的姿态和葱郁活力,但这不过是现代汉诗的回光返照,中国新诗已经走向了穷途末日,这决不是危言耸听!” 2005年7月25日,他又提出警告:“当网络诗歌成为一种被消费的文化形态时,诗人的道德良心和人文关怀便被无形地放逐了,诗歌读者的审美品位也得不到正确的塑造和有序的升华,中国新诗的前景便被蒙上了一层阴影。” [16] 这样的声音,似乎有些严重,经常被巨大的书写狂欢所没盖,没有几个人听得进去的,但它却值得我们冷静下来,好好检视一下。
先说快。贯穿临屏写作一系列环节:码字、编辑、发表、反馈,闪电般空前便捷,但诗歌本质上是“慢”。网络上的“超特快”,对诗歌是一种瓦解。快,容易粗制滥造,快,妨碍品尝力,快,放逐了必要的积淀,快,使复杂的精神流通变得过于简化、粗疏。
由快带来心态浮躁膨胀,不管是即刻捧场或瞬时封杀,临屏的全方位刺激,使作者身心一直处于持续亢奋状态,长期反复于临界冲动,性情中人的脆弱,一旦动摇于伦理底线,缺乏冷静反省,极易造成心理失衡,不断在网上滋生事端;也因为太容易取得“成功胜利”,导致了许多可笑的诗歌幻觉。
网络书写提供大量技术支撑,比如下载链接、复制粘贴、排列填充,怂恿了大量灌水操作和后现代拼贴。诗,涌向了非诗边沿,表面技术的熟练程度越提高,越容易走向类型化,而心灵的写作难度却大大下降了。诗歌写作变成如此容易,毫无节制。接下来,经典的诗歌标准受到了置疑乃至伤害。到底什么是好诗,竟然成为头疼的大事。诗歌界再次陷入标准的混乱。
面对口语为主要语词元素的配置流水线,语言同样受到简化、压缩、粗陋的损害,有时到了莫名其妙的地步。不加节制的信“手”雌黄、生造、硬造、随心所欲,把汉语弄得面目可疑。到处是分行的口语,口语的分行。超频出生的种种新“代码”,过度泛滥,势必让汉语的纯洁性遭到玷污,也使真正的诗性语言蒙冤受屈。
遗憾的是,上述种种弊端,在一些网站竟当为“正宗”。有批评者称之为 “撒泼写作”“闪电写作”“诸侯写作”,[17] 以及集装箱写作。在大量的泥沙和泡沫中,继续把泡沫和泥沙当金子。顺手拈来入选《中国网络诗典》的一首《对白云的赞美》,从中可以看到目前网络诗歌的主要特点和普遍毛病,它的写作流行色具有相当的典型性。全诗如下:“天上的白云/真白啊/真的,很白很/白非常白 /非常非常十分白 /特别白特白/极其白/贼白/简直白死了/啊—— ”在充满嬉戏和口唇快感后面,它只是副词(真、很、非常、特别、极其、简直)的堆砌,没有形象可言,只是“白”的抽象平涂,除了带给读者检阅众多副词的 “新鲜感”,再也没有什么太多的东西。有人认为这就很不错,它带来区别纸媒诗歌的某些“新美“特色,这就够了。而我要强调的是,它充其量,不过是能指漂浮的游戏,决不能捧为网络诗歌写作的“范本”。而当下,恰恰充塞着众多这样的 “范本”。

三、 众多诗学问题的凸显
不管怎样,新世纪以来网络诗歌在高速发展变化中,的确带来不少新鲜气象,给予新诗整体生态以全所未有的补充和巨大空间,同时它携带的那些弊端,又时时侵蚀纯正肌体。在纸质书写与临屏书写相互交叉的时期、在临屏书写特征愈来愈突出,对传统纸质书写造成某些冲击,进而对新诗写作产生重大影响的前期,无疑给大家提出严峻挑战。
以上近5年来的初步观察和梳理,可能带着“有色”与“代沟“的眼镜,更由于茫茫森林的搜索与拣拾,肯定存在不少缺漏与偏颇,但目的,还是希望更多人来关注这一事物,而不仅仅围绕着触网者。尤其是经过几年积累,网络诗歌繁复现象所引发的一系列问题,已在诗学层面上凸显出来了,值得进一步深入探讨:例如网络诗歌物质性与精神性的平衡问题、网络诗歌在众声喧哗中的尺度标准问题、网络诗歌写作者狂欢心态的调节问题与写作难度问题、网络诗歌批评与反批评的伦理底线问题、网络诗歌技术的格式化利用与节制问题、网络诗歌话语的释放与控制问题、网络诗歌管理的民主“法治”问题,还有,诗之深度模式对能指漂浮的“引导”问题、诗之高雅与低俗可能结合的问题、诗性智慧对一次性消费的超越问题,诸如此类,无一不指向网络诗歌学的“节点”。为着网络诗歌学的初期准备与“学科”建设,但愿有更多亲历者与研究者积极介入。

2003年12第一稿
2005年12月第二稿
2006年春节修订

注释
[1] 本文题目借用木法度的一个比喻,见《口水猛于虎》,《诗选刊论坛》2002.9.11  
[2]河南李霞曾做过统计,他在《汉诗网站众生榜》共收集到大陆范围内现代汉诗网站论坛427个(至 04年8月30日止)扣除他所说的已死亡的100个左右,大概还活着300多个,与本人采用省份均算法得出的结果差不多。请参见《佳味诗馆》 2004.9.23   
[3]陈去非:《纲路诗与纲络诗事》,台湾诗学季刊2002年2期
[4] 此数据为谭德晶《网络文学批评论》提供,第48页,中国文联出版公司2004年。 
[5][6][7]小鱼儿《2003年华语网络诗歌不完全梳理》,见《诗歌报网站》2004.1.16  
[8]紫薇:《网络“黑社会”》,见《星星论坛》2003.11.9.   
[9]见世中人主办的《汉语诗歌资料馆》。
[10] 张嘉谚:《中国低诗潮》,见《低诗歌运动》创刊号,2005.3
[11]参见王璞:《对“网络诗歌”的初步考察和研究(下)》, 《诗生活》网站2004.8  
[12]王珂:《网络诗将导致现代汉诗的全方位改变》,《河南社会科学》2004.1   
[13]冰儿:《2004年诗歌自述》,《第三说论坛》2004.12.24
[14] 刘歌:《语词的 暴动——刘歌网络文学作品后记》,国际文化出版公司2004.6  
[15]西渡《诗歌在网络》,见《伯乐》第291页,北京东方伯乐文学研究所2003.11  
[16]长河落日:《中国网络诗歌本质初探》,《诗先锋论坛》2005.7.25
[17] 辛泊平:《诗歌论坛“腐败”面面观》,见《第三说诗歌论坛》2003.1.3

(本文所引材料截止于2005.12.31)

海子诗全编

下载 《海子诗全编》
这是 97 年的那个《海子诗全编》(封面是黑色的),而不是 最新 09年的那个 《海子诗全集》(封面是白色调)。我还没有找到09年《海子诗全集》的电子版,谁有这本书的电子版,请与我联系一下。09版的实体书,印刷质量很好,值得收藏。但是过于沉重,实在难以放在床头时常翻阅。
这个电子版:
1、体积比较小,只有不到9M
2、扫描版,清晰度还可以,至少我觉得和40几M的那个扫描版差不多
3、带目录,更方便查阅

山一中电话

转自山一中贴吧:http://tieba.baidu.com/f?kz=838132121
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BTW:没事转一转贴吧,总能转到点好东西,哈

Dansette